自建内网服务时会用到ssl,就需要自签名(通用)证书了。

一个证书主要有两个文件:秘钥文件(公钥、私钥)、证书文件。私钥签发证书,公钥验证证书。可以给自己签名生成自签名证书,也可以给别人签名,生成通用证书。

专门给别人签名的秘钥一般由证书颁发机构CA保管,如Let's Entrypt。浏览器存有可信证书颁发机构的公钥信息。

证书生成脚本

需要openssl,执行以下命令即可给指定域名颁发证书。将生成的ca.crt导入浏览器证书颁发机构,将domain.com.keydomain.com.crt用于WEB服务器配置即可。

./gencert.sh domain.com
  1. 证书生成脚本gencert.sh
    #!/bin/bash
    
    # 生成根证书
    genCa()
    {
        openssl genrsa -out ca.key 4096
        openssl req \
            -x509 \
            -new \
            -nodes \
            -subj /CN=LocalCa \
            -sha256 \
            -days 7300 \
            -reqexts SAN \
            -extensions SAN \
            -config <(cat openssl.cnf \
                <(printf "[SAN]\nsubjectAltName=DNS:localhost")) \
            -key ca.key \
            -out ca.crt
    }
    
    # 生成域名证书并用根证书签名
    # 2019年7月1日以后签发的证书,有效期必须小于等于825天。可以调整系统时间来改变证书签发日期。
    # https://support.apple.com/zh-cn/HT210176
    genCe()
    {
        domain=${1:-localhost}
        target=${2:-${domain}}
        openssl genrsa -out ${target}.key 2048
        openssl req \
            -new \
            -subj /CN=${domain} \
            -sha256 \
            -reqexts SAN \
            -extensions SAN \
            -config <(cat openssl.cnf \
                <(printf "[SAN]\nsubjectAltName=DNS:${domain},DNS:*.${domain}")) \
            -key ${target}.key \
            -out ${target}.csr
        openssl x509 \
            -req \
            -CA ca.crt \
            -CAkey ca.key \
            -CAcreateserial \
            -sha256 \
            -days 825 \
            -extensions SAN \
            -extfile <(cat openssl.cnf \
                <(printf "[SAN]\nsubjectAltName=DNS:${domain},DNS:*.${domain}")) \
            -in ${target}.csr \
            -out ${target}.crt
    }
    
    # 如果根证书不存在,则生成根证书
    if [[ ! -f ca.key || ! -f ca.crt ]]; then
        genCa
    fi
    
    genCe $@
    
  2. openssl配置openssl.cnf
    #
    # OpenSSL example configuration file.
    # This is mostly being used for generation of certificate requests.
    #
    
    # Note that you can include other files from the main configuration
    # file using the .include directive.
    #.include filename
    
    # This definition stops the following lines choking if HOME isn't
    # defined.
    HOME			= .
    
    # Extra OBJECT IDENTIFIER info:
    #oid_file		= $ENV::HOME/.oid
    oid_section		= new_oids
    
    # To use this configuration file with the "-extfile" option of the
    # "openssl x509" utility, name here the section containing the
    # X.509v3 extensions to use:
    # extensions		= 
    # (Alternatively, use a configuration file that has only
    # X.509v3 extensions in its main [= default] section.)
    
    [ new_oids ]
    
    # We can add new OIDs in here for use by 'ca', 'req' and 'ts'.
    # Add a simple OID like this:
    # testoid1=1.2.3.4
    # Or use config file substitution like this:
    # testoid2=${testoid1}.5.6
    
    # Policies used by the TSA examples.
    tsa_policy1 = 1.2.3.4.1
    tsa_policy2 = 1.2.3.4.5.6
    tsa_policy3 = 1.2.3.4.5.7
    
    ####################################################################
    [ ca ]
    default_ca	= CA_default		# The default ca section
    
    ####################################################################
    [ CA_default ]
    
    dir		= /etc/ssl		# Where everything is kept
    certs		= $dir/certs		# Where the issued certs are kept
    crl_dir		= $dir/crl		# Where the issued crl are kept
    database	= $dir/index.txt	# database index file.
    #unique_subject	= no			# Set to 'no' to allow creation of
                        # several certs with same subject.
    new_certs_dir	= $dir/newcerts		# default place for new certs.
    
    certificate	= $dir/cacert.pem 	# The CA certificate
    serial		= $dir/serial 		# The current serial number
    crlnumber	= $dir/crlnumber	# the current crl number
                        # must be commented out to leave a V1 CRL
    crl		= $dir/crl.pem 		# The current CRL
    private_key	= $dir/private/cakey.pem# The private key
    
    x509_extensions	= usr_cert		# The extensions to add to the cert
    
    # Comment out the following two lines for the "traditional"
    # (and highly broken) format.
    name_opt 	= ca_default		# Subject Name options
    cert_opt 	= ca_default		# Certificate field options
    
    # Extension copying option: use with caution.
    # copy_extensions = copy
    
    # Extensions to add to a CRL. Note: Netscape communicator chokes on V2 CRLs
    # so this is commented out by default to leave a V1 CRL.
    # crlnumber must also be commented out to leave a V1 CRL.
    # crl_extensions	= crl_ext
    
    default_days	= 365			# how long to certify for
    default_crl_days= 30			# how long before next CRL
    default_md	= default		# use public key default MD
    preserve	= no			# keep passed DN ordering
    
    # A few difference way of specifying how similar the request should look
    # For type CA, the listed attributes must be the same, and the optional
    # and supplied fields are just that :-)
    policy		= policy_match
    
    # For the CA policy
    [ policy_match ]
    countryName		= match
    stateOrProvinceName	= match
    organizationName	= match
    organizationalUnitName	= optional
    commonName		= supplied
    emailAddress		= optional
    
    # For the 'anything' policy
    # At this point in time, you must list all acceptable 'object'
    # types.
    [ policy_anything ]
    countryName		= optional
    stateOrProvinceName	= optional
    localityName		= optional
    organizationName	= optional
    organizationalUnitName	= optional
    commonName		= supplied
    emailAddress		= optional
    
    ####################################################################
    [ req ]
    default_bits		= 2048
    default_keyfile 	= privkey.pem
    distinguished_name	= req_distinguished_name
    attributes		= req_attributes
    x509_extensions	= v3_ca	# The extensions to add to the self signed cert
    
    # Passwords for private keys if not present they will be prompted for
    # input_password = secret
    # output_password = secret
    
    # This sets a mask for permitted string types. There are several options. 
    # default: PrintableString, T61String, BMPString.
    # pkix	 : PrintableString, BMPString (PKIX recommendation before 2004)
    # utf8only: only UTF8Strings (PKIX recommendation after 2004).
    # nombstr : PrintableString, T61String (no BMPStrings or UTF8Strings).
    # MASK:XXXX a literal mask value.
    # WARNING: ancient versions of Netscape crash on BMPStrings or UTF8Strings.
    string_mask = utf8only
    
    # req_extensions = v3_req # The extensions to add to a certificate request
    
    [ req_distinguished_name ]
    countryName			= Country Name (2 letter code)
    countryName_default		= AU
    countryName_min			= 2
    countryName_max			= 2
    
    stateOrProvinceName		= State or Province Name (full name)
    stateOrProvinceName_default	= Some-State
    
    localityName			= Locality Name (eg, city)
    
    0.organizationName		= Organization Name (eg, company)
    0.organizationName_default	= Internet Widgits Pty Ltd
    
    # we can do this but it is not needed normally :-)
    #1.organizationName		= Second Organization Name (eg, company)
    #1.organizationName_default	= World Wide Web Pty Ltd
    
    organizationalUnitName		= Organizational Unit Name (eg, section)
    #organizationalUnitName_default	=
    
    commonName			= Common Name (e.g. server FQDN or YOUR name)
    commonName_max			= 64
    
    emailAddress			= Email Address
    emailAddress_max		= 64
    
    # SET-ex3			= SET extension number 3
    
    [ req_attributes ]
    challengePassword		= A challenge password
    challengePassword_min		= 4
    challengePassword_max		= 20
    
    unstructuredName		= An optional company name
    
    [ usr_cert ]
    
    # These extensions are added when 'ca' signs a request.
    
    # This goes against PKIX guidelines but some CAs do it and some software
    # requires this to avoid interpreting an end user certificate as a CA.
    
    basicConstraints=CA:FALSE
    
    # Here are some examples of the usage of nsCertType. If it is omitted
    # the certificate can be used for anything *except* object signing.
    
    # This is OK for an SSL server.
    # nsCertType			= server
    
    # For an object signing certificate this would be used.
    # nsCertType = objsign
    
    # For normal client use this is typical
    # nsCertType = client, email
    
    # and for everything including object signing:
    # nsCertType = client, email, objsign
    
    # This is typical in keyUsage for a client certificate.
    # keyUsage = nonRepudiation, digitalSignature, keyEncipherment
    
    # This will be displayed in Netscape's comment listbox.
    nsComment			= "OpenSSL Generated Certificate"
    
    # PKIX recommendations harmless if included in all certificates.
    subjectKeyIdentifier=hash
    authorityKeyIdentifier=keyid,issuer
    
    # This stuff is for subjectAltName and issuerAltname.
    # Import the email address.
    # subjectAltName=email:copy
    # An alternative to produce certificates that aren't
    # deprecated according to PKIX.
    # subjectAltName=email:move
    
    # Copy subject details
    # issuerAltName=issuer:copy
    
    #nsCaRevocationUrl		= http://www.domain.dom/ca-crl.pem
    #nsBaseUrl
    #nsRevocationUrl
    #nsRenewalUrl
    #nsCaPolicyUrl
    #nsSslServerName
    
    # This is required for TSA certificates.
    # extendedKeyUsage = critical,timeStamping
    
    [ v3_req ]
    
    # Extensions to add to a certificate request
    
    basicConstraints = CA:FALSE
    keyUsage = nonRepudiation, digitalSignature, keyEncipherment
    
    [ v3_ca ]
    
    
    # Extensions for a typical CA
    
    
    # PKIX recommendation.
    
    subjectKeyIdentifier=hash
    
    authorityKeyIdentifier=keyid:always,issuer
    
    basicConstraints = critical,CA:true
    
    # Key usage: this is typical for a CA certificate. However since it will
    # prevent it being used as an test self-signed certificate it is best
    # left out by default.
    # keyUsage = cRLSign, keyCertSign
    
    # Some might want this also
    # nsCertType = sslCA, emailCA
    
    # Include email address in subject alt name: another PKIX recommendation
    # subjectAltName=email:copy
    # Copy issuer details
    # issuerAltName=issuer:copy
    
    # DER hex encoding of an extension: beware experts only!
    # obj=DER:02:03
    # Where 'obj' is a standard or added object
    # You can even override a supported extension:
    # basicConstraints= critical, DER:30:03:01:01:FF
    
    [ crl_ext ]
    
    # CRL extensions.
    # Only issuerAltName and authorityKeyIdentifier make any sense in a CRL.
    
    # issuerAltName=issuer:copy
    authorityKeyIdentifier=keyid:always
    
    [ proxy_cert_ext ]
    # These extensions should be added when creating a proxy certificate
    
    # This goes against PKIX guidelines but some CAs do it and some software
    # requires this to avoid interpreting an end user certificate as a CA.
    
    basicConstraints=CA:FALSE
    
    # Here are some examples of the usage of nsCertType. If it is omitted
    # the certificate can be used for anything *except* object signing.
    
    # This is OK for an SSL server.
    # nsCertType			= server
    
    # For an object signing certificate this would be used.
    # nsCertType = objsign
    
    # For normal client use this is typical
    # nsCertType = client, email
    
    # and for everything including object signing:
    # nsCertType = client, email, objsign
    
    # This is typical in keyUsage for a client certificate.
    # keyUsage = nonRepudiation, digitalSignature, keyEncipherment
    
    # This will be displayed in Netscape's comment listbox.
    nsComment			= "OpenSSL Generated Certificate"
    
    # PKIX recommendations harmless if included in all certificates.
    subjectKeyIdentifier=hash
    authorityKeyIdentifier=keyid,issuer
    
    # This stuff is for subjectAltName and issuerAltname.
    # Import the email address.
    # subjectAltName=email:copy
    # An alternative to produce certificates that aren't
    # deprecated according to PKIX.
    # subjectAltName=email:move
    
    # Copy subject details
    # issuerAltName=issuer:copy
    
    #nsCaRevocationUrl		= http://www.domain.dom/ca-crl.pem
    #nsBaseUrl
    #nsRevocationUrl
    #nsRenewalUrl
    #nsCaPolicyUrl
    #nsSslServerName
    
    # This really needs to be in place for it to be a proxy certificate.
    proxyCertInfo=critical,language:id-ppl-anyLanguage,pathlen:3,policy:foo
    
    ####################################################################
    [ tsa ]
    
    default_tsa = tsa_config1	# the default TSA section
    
    [ tsa_config1 ]
    
    # These are used by the TSA reply generation only.
    dir		= /etc/ssl		# TSA root directory
    serial		= $dir/tsaserial	# The current serial number (mandatory)
    crypto_device	= builtin		# OpenSSL engine to use for signing
    signer_cert	= $dir/tsacert.pem 	# The TSA signing certificate
                        # (optional)
    certs		= $dir/cacert.pem	# Certificate chain to include in reply
                        # (optional)
    signer_key	= $dir/private/tsakey.pem # The TSA private key (optional)
    signer_digest  = sha256			# Signing digest to use. (Optional)
    default_policy	= tsa_policy1		# Policy if request did not specify it
                        # (optional)
    other_policies	= tsa_policy2, tsa_policy3	# acceptable policies (optional)
    digests     = sha1, sha256, sha384, sha512  # Acceptable message digests (mandatory)
    accuracy	= secs:1, millisecs:500, microsecs:100	# (optional)
    clock_precision_digits  = 0	# number of digits after dot. (optional)
    ordering		= yes	# Is ordering defined for timestamps?
                    # (optional, default: no)
    tsa_name		= yes	# Must the TSA name be included in the reply?
                    # (optional, default: no)
    ess_cert_id_chain	= no	# Must the ESS cert id chain be included?
                    # (optional, default: no)
    ess_cert_id_alg		= sha1	# algorithm to compute certificate
                    # identifier (optional, default: sha1)
    

**证书的有效期不能超过825天,否则浏览器会认为证书无效。**参考iOS 13 和 macOS 10.15 中的可信证书应满足的要求

ArchLinux添加自定义根证书

1.Move /usr/local/share/ca-certificates/.crt to /etc/ca-certificates/trust-source/anchors/ 2.Do the same with all manually-added /etc/ssl/certs/.pem files and rename them to *.crt 3.Instead of update-ca-certificates, run trust extract-compat

参考文章